Advice on measures seniors can take to cope with aging changes

People in retirement are often concerned with their ability to cope with aging changes. Aging is however a natural and complex biological process that affects the body in various ways and can lead to health issues in older individuals. While aging itself is not a disease, it is associated with several natural physiological changes that can contribute to health problems.


Some of the key natural causes of aging-related health issues in seniors include:


    1. Cellular and Molecular Changes:

    • Telomere Shortening: Telomeres are protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that shorten with each cell division. Over time, this shortening can lead to cellular dysfunction and aging.


    2. DNA Damage: Accumulated DNA damage from various sources, including radiation and oxidative stress, can result in cellular mutations and malfunction.

    3. Decline in Metabolic Function:

    • Reduced Metabolic Rate: The body’s metabolism generally slows down with age, which can lead to weight gain and a decrease in energy levels.
    • Insulin Resistance: Many older individuals become less responsive to insulin, which can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.

    4. Changes in Body Composition:

    • Muscle Mass Loss: Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength, is common in older adults and can lead to frailty and decreased mobility.
    • Increase in Body Fat: Seniors often experience an increase in body fat, particularly around the abdomen, which can contribute to obesity-related health problems.

    5. Hormonal Changes:

    6. Immune System Aging:

    • Immunosenescence: The immune system becomes less efficient at recognizing and fighting infections, increasing susceptibility to diseases.
    • Chronic Inflammation: Low-level chronic inflammation, often referred to as “inflammaging,” can contribute to various age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.

    7. Accumulation of Cellular Waste:

    • Impaired Autophagy: Autophagy, the process by which cells remove damaged components, becomes less efficient with age, leading to the accumulation of cellular waste products.

    8. Decline in Organ Function:

    • Reduced Organ Reserve: Many organs, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, may experience a gradual decline in function, increasing the risk of age-related diseases like heart failure and kidney disease.

    9. Neurological Changes:

    10. Decreased Bone Density:

    It’s important to note that not everyone experiences these age-related changes at the same rate or to the same degree. Lifestyle factors, genetics, and healthcare practices can influence the aging process and its impact on health. While aging is inevitable, adopting a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise, a balanced diet, and regular medical check-ups can help mitigate some of the age-related health issues and promote overall well-being in seniors.


    Minimizing the natural attrition of body functions in old age involves adopting a holistic approach that includes physical, mental, and lifestyle strategies. While aging is a natural process and cannot be entirely halted, these practices can help promote better overall health and delay the onset of age-related declines:

    1. Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity is one of the most effective ways to maintain muscle strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular health. Aim for a mix of aerobic exercises, strength training, and flexibility exercises to maintain a balanced fitness routine. Consult with a healthcare provider before starting a new exercise program.

    2. Healthy Diet: A well-balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats can support overall health and help prevent chronic diseases. Adequate hydration is also essential.

    3. Stay Mentally Active: Keep your mind engaged during this period of aging changes by reading, solving puzzles, learning new skills, or pursuing hobbies and interests. Socializing with friends and family can also help maintain cognitive function.

    4. Adequate Sleep: Ensure you get enough quality sleep as it plays a crucial role in overall health and cognitive function. Establish a regular sleep schedule and create a sleep-conducive environment.

    5. Regular Health Checkups: Schedule regular checkups with your healthcare provider to monitor your health and catch potential issues early. Follow your doctor’s recommendations for screenings, vaccinations, and medications.

    6. Manage Stress: Chronic stress can accelerate the aging changes process. Practice stress-reduction techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, mindfulness, or yoga to manage stress effectively.

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    7. Limit Alcohol and Tobacco: Excessive alcohol consumption and smoking can accelerate the aging process and increase the risk of chronic diseases. If you smoke or drink, consider quitting or reducing your consumption.

    8. Stay Hydrated: Proper hydration is essential for maintaining bodily functions. Drink enough water throughout the day, especially in hot weather or during physical activity.

    9. Maintain a Healthy Weight: Aim to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise. Excess weight can increase the risk of various health problems.

    10. Prevent Falls: Falls are a significant concern for seniors. Make your living space safe by removing hazards, installing handrails, and using assistive devices if necessary. Regular exercise can also improve balance and coordination.

    11. Stay Vaccinated: Keep up with recommended vaccinations, including flu and pneumonia vaccines, to protect against preventable diseases.

    12, Keep a Positive Outlook: A positive attitude can have a significant impact on your overall well-being. Engage in activities that bring you joy and cultivate a sense of purpose.

    13. Stay Engaged: Maintain social connections with friends and family to prevent loneliness and isolation, which can have negative effects on mental and physical health during this period of aging changes.

    14. Adapt to Changes: As you age, be prepared to adapt to changing circumstances. This might include modifications to your living situation, daily routines, or healthcare needs.

    15. Consider Professional Guidance: Consult with healthcare professionals, such as geriatricians or nutritionists, who specialize in senior health for personalized advice and guidance.



    There are several electronic devices and technologies available that can significantly enhance the care and quality of life for seniors with disabilities. The best devices for aged care may depend on the specific needs and challenges of the individual. Here are some of the latest electronic devices and technologies suitable for seniors with disabilities:

    1. Medical Alert Systems: These wearable devices come with a panic button that seniors can press in case of emergencies. They can also include fall detection features, which automatically call for help if a fall is detected.

    2. Smartphones and Tablets: These devices can be loaded with apps that help seniors with disabilities in various ways, including medication reminders, communication, cognitive training, and accessing online resources.

    3. Voice-Activated Assistants: Devices like Amazon Echo and Google Home can assist with tasks such as setting reminders, making phone calls, and controlling smart home devices through voice commands.

    4. Smart Home Devices: A range of smart home technologies can be especially beneficial for seniors with disabilities. Examples include smart thermostats, smart locks, and smart lighting systems that can be controlled remotely or via voice commands.

    5. Telehealth Devices: These devices facilitate remote healthcare monitoring and communication with healthcare providers. They can include blood pressure monitors, glucose meters, and video conferencing tools for virtual doctor appointments.

    6. Wearable Health Monitors: Devices like smartwatches and fitness trackers can monitor vital signs, track activity, and provide health insights. Some models are designed with seniors in mind and include features like fall detection.

    7. Medication Dispensers: These automated devices can dispense medication at scheduled times and send alerts to remind seniors to take their medications. Some models can also notify caregivers or family members if doses are missed.

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    8. GPS Trackers: GPS-enabled devices can help locate seniors with dementia or those prone to wandering. They can be worn as a pendant or attached to clothing.

    9. Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV): These systems can assist individuals with visual impairments by magnifying printed materials or providing image enhancement. Some CCTVs come with speech output features.

    10. Adaptive Computer Accessories: For seniors who want to use computers or tablets, there are adaptive accessories like large-print keyboards, trackball mice, and screen-reading software.

    11. Home Automation Systems: These systems can control various aspects of the home environment, such as lights, temperature, and security, through a central hub or smartphone app, making it easier for seniors with disabilities to manage their surroundings.

    12. Robotics: Advanced robotics can assist with tasks such as cleaning, fetching objects, and even providing companionship.

    13. Hearing Aids and Assistive Listening Devices: These devices can help seniors with hearing impairments by amplifying sounds and reducing background noise.

    14. Smart Glasses: Some smart glasses are designed to assist those with visual impairments by providing real-time audio descriptions of their surroundings.

    When selecting electronic devices for senior care, it’s important to consider the specific needs and preferences of the individual, as well as their level of familiarity and comfort with technology. Additionally, involving healthcare professionals or occupational therapists in the selection process can ensure that the chosen devices are appropriate and effectively address the person’s disability-related challenges.


    Remember that genetics play a role in aging changes, and individual results may vary. However, adopting these healthy lifestyle practices can help minimize the natural attrition of body functions and enhance your quality of life as you age. Always consult with healthcare professionals before making significant changes to your lifestyle or healthcare regimen.

    Important advice on what to do if you have a stroke

    Having had first hand experience of this ( you can read about it HERE ) you need a cool head to decide on what to do if you have a stroke as having one is like having a traffic jam in your brain. It happens when something disrupts the flow of blood to a part of your brain, similar to how a traffic jam can block the flow of cars on a road. In my case it was unexplained blurred vision when I looked into a mirror.

    Here’s why it happens: Your brain needs a constant supply of blood to get oxygen and nutrients. If a blood vessel that supplies the brain gets blocked or bursts, it can lead to a stroke. Think of it like a pipe getting clogged or bursting, causing water to stop flowing or leak where it shouldn’t.

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    There are two main types of strokes:

    1. Ischemic Stroke: This is like a blockage in the brain’s blood highway. It occurs when a blood clot or fatty deposit (plaque) blocks a blood vessel, cutting off the blood supply to a part of the brain.
    2. Hemorrhagic Stroke: This is like a burst pipe in the brain. It happens when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding inside the brain. The pressure from the bleeding can damage brain cells.


    Doctors use several methods to diagnose strokes. These methods help them determine the type of stroke, its location, and the extent of damage. Here are the primary diagnostic tools and procedures:

    • Physical Examination: The doctor will start with a physical examination and review the patient’s medical history. They will ask about symptoms, risk factors, and the time of symptom onset. This information is crucial for determining treatment options.

    what to do if you have a stroke










    • Neurological Examination: The doctor will conduct a neurological exam to assess the patient’s brain function. This may include checking reflexes, muscle strength, coordination, and sensory perception.
    • Imaging Tests:
      • CT Scan (Computed Tomography): This is often the first imaging test performed to determine if the stroke is caused by a clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic). It can also show the location and size of the stroke.
      • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): An MRI provides more detailed images of the brain and can help distinguish between different types of strokes. It’s particularly useful for detecting small strokes or those in specific brain regions.
    • Blood Tests: Blood tests can help identify certain risk factors for stroke, such as high cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, and clotting disorders.
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): This test records the electrical activity of the heart. It can help detect irregular heart rhythms (atrial fibrillation) that may contribute to stroke risk.
    • Carotid Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the carotid arteries in the neck. It helps assess if there is any narrowing or blockage of these arteries, which can increase the risk of stroke.
    • Cerebral Angiography: In some cases, a cerebral angiogram may be performed. It involves injecting contrast dye into blood vessels and taking X-ray images to visualize the blood vessels in the brain. This can help identify aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or other vascular abnormalities that may lead to stroke. This was one of the procedures that I had done after having been diagnosed with a stroke.
    • Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap): Although less common, a lumbar puncture may be done in certain situations to analyze the cerebrospinal fluid for signs of bleeding or infection.
    • Transesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE): This specialized ultrasound test can provide a closer look at the heart’s structures, especially if there is suspicion of a heart-related cause of stroke.

    Here is a YouTube video which explains what doctors look for in different scans to determine whether a stroke has taken place.

    The combination of these diagnostic tests and assessments helps doctors determine the cause and severity of the stroke, guiding them in making appropriate treatment decisions. Time is critical in stroke diagnosis and treatment, so seeking medical attention immediately when stroke symptoms are suspected is crucial for the best possible outcome.


    As for a cure, it depends on the type of stroke:

    • Ischemic Stroke: In many cases, doctors can give medication called “clot-busters” to dissolve the clot and restore blood flow. They might also recommend procedures like a thrombectomy to physically remove the clot. Long-term treatment may involve medications and lifestyle changes to prevent future strokes.
    • Hemorrhagic Stroke: Treating this type of stroke usually involves stopping the bleeding and reducing pressure in the brain. Surgery may be needed to repair the damaged blood vessel or remove blood clots. Medications and other treatments may also be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

    As a result of the medical tests that that were performed on me I was fortunate when told that by taking 1 aspirin a day for the rest of my life I should avoid a recurrence of a stroke.


    The speed and extent of recovery after a stroke vary greatly from person to person and depend on several factors, including the type of stroke, the area of the brain affected, the severity of the damage, and the individual’s overall health and age. Recovery is typically categorized into short-term and long-term phases:

    1. Short-Term Recovery (Days to Weeks):
      • Immediate Medical Care: The first hours and days after a stroke are critical. Swift medical intervention can minimize damage and improve outcomes.
      • Acute Treatment: If the stroke is caused by a blood clot, treatments like clot-busting medication or thrombectomy may be administered to restore blood flow to the brain.
      • Hospitalization: Patients are usually closely monitored in the hospital, where healthcare professionals focus on stabilizing their condition, preventing complications, and providing early rehabilitation.
      • Physical and Occupational Therapy: In the acute phase, stroke survivors often begin physical and occupational therapy to regain basic motor skills and independence.
    2. Long-Term Recovery (Months to Years):
      • Rehabilitation: Stroke survivors typically continue rehabilitation after leaving the hospital. This may involve physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and sometimes recreational therapy.
      • Adaptive Strategies: Patients and their families learn to adapt to any permanent disabilities. This may include using mobility aids, assistive devices, or making home modifications for safety.
      • Medications: Some individuals may need long-term medications to manage stroke-related conditions like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes.
      • Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation can significantly impact recovery and reduce the risk of future strokes.
      • Emotional Support: Stroke survivors may experience emotional challenges such as depression, anxiety, or changes in personality. Support from mental health professionals and support groups can be beneficial.
      • Continued Improvement: Recovery can continue for months or even years after a stroke. Many people see significant gains in their abilities and quality of life over time.

    It’s important to note that not all stroke survivors experience the same level of recovery. Some may recover fully and regain their previous level of functioning, while others may have long-lasting disabilities. The key factors that influence recovery include the extent of brain damage, the availability and intensity of rehabilitation, and the individual’s motivation and support system.

    Early intervention and ongoing rehabilitation play a crucial role in improving outcomes after a stroke. Setting realistic goals and working closely with healthcare professionals can help stroke survivors maximize their recovery potential. Patience, perseverance, and a positive attitude also contribute to the journey of recovery.


    It’s important to remember that getting medical help quickly is crucial when determining what to do if you have a stroke. Time is of the essence because the longer the brain is deprived of blood and oxygen, the more damage can occur. So, if you suspect someone is having a stroke, call 911 or emergency services immediately. Strokes can be very serious, but with prompt medical attention and rehabilitation, many people can recover and regain their quality of life to some extent.

    Breathe Easy at Home With Four Essential Elements

    3 million people a year die prematurely from poor air indoor air quality, according to the World Health Organization. We spend 90% of our time in our homes and offices, yet the air in these environments can be more polluted that outdoors. It’s because they’re filled with things that contain and release chemicals, from our furniture and furnishings to air fresheners and detergents. These chemicals can be detrimental to our health causing skin and eye irritation, breathing problems, fatigue, sickness and (when they accumulate over time) more serious conditions such as stroke or cancer. Connect with nature by using the four elements as ways to purify the air in your home for a healthier environment.
    breathe easy at home

    1. Earth Element – Find a Home for Houseplants

    As well as looking lovely, houseplants can improve the air quality in your home. Part of the photosynthesis process (how plants generate energy to grow) involves absorbing carbon dioxide gasses through their leaves. A handy byproduct of this process is that) they also soak up harmful toxins found in plastics and everyday items in the home. Introducing house plants can relieve symptoms of asthma, sickness and general fatigue as well as some more serious conditions such as cancer. Clean the leaves of your plants to rid them of dirt and boost their effectiveness.

    2. Wind Element – Aerate to Decontaminate

    Ventilation (or removing humidity from a building) can lessen the accumulation of mold and mildew – a contributor to common allergies and especially breathing problems. If you live near green space then flinging open the windows will allow clean air to circulate, but on a main road or built up area this could introduce even more pollutants. Use fans and vents to help air circulate whilst filtering what’s entering the home.

    3. Water Element – Make Water a Feature

    Water is one of the most effective elements when looking to cleanse an indoor environment. Keeping the house clean using natural water will help to reduce pollutants but water fountains are also beneficial in many ways. Often used as air purifiers, they can even help you sleep. Whether it’s a small water feature or a full wall fountain, running water attracts dust particles from the air. All these tiny dirt particles carry a tiny electric charge which is attracted to the running water. The filter in the fountain then cleanses the water and the cycle begins again.

    4. Fire Element – Burn the Candle at One End

    A beeswax candle is a natural alternative to synthetic candles that will only add to the pollutants already in your home. Ionizing the air and neutralizing toxins, a beeswax candle will burn slowly for hours and hours before needing to be replaced. If you’re worried about leaving an open flame unattended then a Himalayan salt lamp can be just as effective and can even be left on overnight.


    Indoor air pollution is a very serious problem that’s being recognized as a major contributor to ill health but by connecting with nature through the four elements, homeowners can cleanse their environment and avoid the effects of pollution.


    Cassandra Johnson

    5 Fitness Tips for Men over 50. Latest useful secrets!

    fitness tips for men
    Getting older is not fun but it doesn’t have to be a bad either. As you get older, your body will change and you need to accept those changes to live a satisfying life at any age. Understanding your age and its specificities, as well as adequately taking care of your body, will keep you healthy and happy for decades to come. Reaching that 50s threshold means that some things will have to change. Read the next few fitness tips for men over 50 and put your best foot forward in meeting the years to come.

    1. Think before you eat

    Dietary needs change with age. As you get older, your energy levels will decrease and your metabolism will slow down. That means that you might start noticing your appetite decrease, but not necessarily. You might continue consuming the same amount of food out of habit; but be careful with that as it can be a problem if you want to keep your weight in check. So, think before you eat because times are changing. You will need to regulate the amount of food you consume and the type of nutrients you take in. Some vitamins and minerals are absorbed differently at different ages and you should consider that as well when it comes to planning your meals. Also, make sure you always eat as much fruit and vegetables and avoid processed foods.
    fitness tips for men

    2. Exercise

    If you haven’t been exercising before, now is the time to start. As you get older, your muscles and tendons will become tighter and your ability to balance will continuously deteriorate. A lack of physical activity can lead to serious health issues, like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a higher risk of injury. When you lose your ability to keep balance and your bones become less dense, every fall is dangerous. You need to start stretching to keep your joints and hips flexible and functional and your ability to maintain balance. Starting aerobics or a strength training will help you improve your fitness levels and strengthen your muscles. Your cardiovascular system will function better and you won’t have to worry about heart disease or metabolic problems.

    3. Get regular checkups

    Having regular checkups is a crucial element of staying healthy. There are some general rules but you should consult your doctor for more specific instructions about the frequency and type of checkups you should have. In general, cholesterol should be checked every five years. If you are overweight, physically inactive, or have a family member with diabetes, you should regularly have diabetes screening as well. Checking your blood pressure is also recommended. Your eyes will also start showing an age-related decline and you should start having regular eye checkups. Australians are known for their responsible approach to health and getting an eye test in Sydney is one of the most common checkups you will hear about from any of my compatriots. So take a cue from them and get your eyes tested.
    fitness tips for men

    4. Drink less alcohol

    The effects of alcohol on your body
    are quite harmful and they only get worse as you age. Drinking alcohol negatively affects your heart and arteries, which can lead to a heart attack, chest pain and blocked arteries. It can cause joint pain and a higher risk of getting kidney stones. Your bones may even become weaker and start losing mass faster than normal, which can lead to osteoporosis. As you can see, nothing good comes from drinking alcohol, but if you really enjoy it, try limiting your habit to no more than one drink per day.

    5. Get a good night’s sleep

    Not getting enough sleep can lead to all sorts of problems: higher levels of stress, lack of energy, premature aging, the list goes on. Sleep is the time when your body can regenerate itself and that is especially important when you reach a certain age. So, do everything you can to get enough sleep. Go to bed at the same time every night. Don’t drink alcohol or caffeinated drinks before going to bed. One other thing that can affect the quality of your sleep is your screen time. Staring at screens can trick your brain into thinking it is daytime and not the time for sleeping, so you should set at least thirty minutes of no-screen time before going to bed. Use these tips and you will be sleeping like a baby and you will notice the difference in the way you feel as well.

    Guest Author’s Bio

    Peter Minkoff is a lifestyle writer for HighStyleLife magazine living in Brisbane, Australia. He is dedicated to healthy living, exercising and spending time outdoors as much as possible. A firm believer in healthy diet, natural smoothies and energy healthy drinks for overall health benefits, Peter is powered by true motivation in all aspects of yoga and fitness-ing. He hopes to run his own yoga and fitness center someday. You can follow Peter on Twitter.

    Current Research Alzheimer Disease. Focus on Latest Progress

    Тhe background to current research Alzheimer disease shows how this dеbіlіtаtіng nеurоlоgісаl dіsоrdеr саusеs mеmоrу lоss, еmоtіоnаl рrоblеms аnd іmраіrеd rеаsоnіng. Іt аffесts оnе реrsоn іn 10 оvеr thе аgе оf 65 аnd аlmоst hаlf thоsе оvеr thе аgе оf 85.

    Тhе аbnоrmаlіtіеs оf Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе саn bе fоund іn рrіmаtеs, іе humаns, ареs аnd mоnkеуs, аnd іn сеrtаіn strаіns оf mісе. Аnіmаl studіеs аnd аnіmаl ехреrіmеnts рrоvіdе орроrtunіtіеs fоr undеrstаndіng hоw Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе аffесts thе brаіn, аnd fоr studуіng роtеntіаl nеw trеаtmеnts.

    Numerous research studies are currently being undertaken around the world  to discover a cure for this debilitating disease. Stem cells research is an example of one such study.

    Here is a short YouTube video which explains how the disease progresses in the person afflicted by it:-


    Current rеsеаrсh Аlzhеіmеr dіsеаsе – What has been discovered to date?

    Disease pаthоlоgу

    Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе hаs lоng bееn аssосіаtеd wіth thе dеvеlорmеnt оf рlаquеs аnd tаnglеs оf fіbrоus рrоtеіns іn thе brаіn. Fоrmеd frоm рrоtеіns knоwn аs аmуlоіd-bеtа (Аß) аnd tаu рrоtеіn rеsресtіvеlу, thеsе struсturеs hаvе fоrmеd thе fосus оf rеsеаrсh іntо trеаtіng Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе. Dеsріtе thіs іt іs stіll unсlеаr whеthеr thеsе рlаquеs аnd tаnglеs аrе thе sоurсе оf dаmаgе оr а sуmрtоm оf sоmеthіng dеереr.

    Маnу lаrgе рhаrmасеutісаl соmраnіеs hаvе іnvеstеd іn dеvеlоріng trеаtmеnts tо tаrgеt аmуlоіd рlаquеs, but аll hаvе fаіlеd іn сlіnісаl trіаls. Whіlе іt sееms thаt sоmе drugs аrе аblе tо сlеаr thе рlаquеs, thеу dо nоt арреаr tо slоw thе dеgеnеrаtіоn оf соgnіtіvе аbіlіtу. Тhе tаu рrоtеіn tаnglеs, hоwеvеr, dо арреаr tо соrrеlаtе bеttеr wіth brаіn funсtіоn аnd muсh mоdеrn rеsеаrсh іs аіmеd аt rеmоvіng thеsе.

    Rесеntlу, Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе hаs bееn rеfеrrеd tо аs ‘Туре ІІІ dіаbеtеs’ аs іt арреаrs, thrоugh аnіmаl ехреrіmеnts, tо bе lіnkеd tо іnsulіn rеsіstаnсе іn brаіn сеlls. Rеsеаrсh іntо thе еffесts оf аlсоhоl оn іnsulіn rеsіstаnсе іn thе brаіns оf rаts lеd rеsеаrсhеrs tо nоtе thаt thе lоss оf іnsulіn rесерtоrs іn brаіn сеlls рrоduсеd sуmрtоms thаt wеrе vеrу sіmіlаr tо Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе. Тhе sаmе еffесts hаvе аlsо bееn sееn іn rаts аnd rаbbіts thаt hаvе dіаbеtеs. Аddіng іnsulіn tо brаіn tіssuе frоm humаn саdаvеrs hаs shоwn dіffеrеnt rеsроnsеs dереndіng оn whеthеr thе реrsоn hаd bееn аffесtеd bу Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе. Тhе hеаlthу brаіn tіssuе bеgаn tо sіgnаl аnd асtіvаtе іn thе рrеsеnсе оf іnsulіn whіlе thе brаіn tіssuе wіth рlаquеs shоwеd lіttlе rеsроnsе.

    Gеnеtіс Аsресts

    Whіlе thеrе аrе sоmе rаrе саsеs оf sіnglе gеnе dеfесts rеsultіng іn hеrеdіtаrу еаrlу-оnsеt Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе, mоst саsеs аrе duе tо multірlе fасtоrs. Тhеrе hаvе bееn sеvеrаl gеnеs dіsсоvеrеd thаt аrе аssосіаtеd wіth thе dіsеаsе, hоwеvеr mоst hаvе оnlу а mіnоr еffесt оn а реrsоn’s rіsk fасtоr.

    Rеsеаrсh аnd аnіmаl tеsts usіng gеnеtісаllу mоdіfіеd mісе hаs shоwn hоw оnе раrtісulаr vеrsіоn оf thе humаn АРР gеnе lеаds tо buіld uр оf dаmаgіng dероsіts іn thе brаіn. Gеnеtісаllу еngіnееrеd mісе hаvе bееn mаdе thаt lасk thе еnzуmе thаt mаkеs аmуlоіd. Тhеrе аrе соmроunds thаt blосk thе еnzуmе, аnd thеsе mау bе сlіnісаllу usеful іf thеу аrе sаfе іn humаns. Ву studуіng GМ mісе wіth Аlzhеіmеr’s, sсіеntіsts hаvе dіsсоvеrеd twо mоrе gеnеs іnvоlvеd іn thе еаrlу stаgеs оf thе dіsеаsе.

    current research alzheimer disease

    Місе thаt wеrе gеnеtісаllу еngіnееrеd tо hаvе Аlzhеіmеr’s hаvе еnаblеd sсіеntіsts tо shоw thаt thе Аß еntеrs thе brаіn bу rіdіng ріggуbасk оn а nоn-tохіс mоlесulе саllеd RАGЕ, whісh frееlу сrоssеs thе blооd-brаіn bаrrіеr. Тhе сеlls thаt fоrm thе bаrrіеr рrоduсе RАGЕ, аnd іn Аlzhеіmеr’s mісе thеу оvеrрrоduсе іt.

    Сurrеnt Тrеаtmеnts

    Тhе mаіn сlаss оf drugs usеd tо trеаt Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе аrе knоwn аs сhоlіnеstеrаsе іnhіbіtоrs. Тhеsе рrеvеnt thе dеgrаdаtіоn оf thе nеurоtrаnsmіttеr асеtуlсhоlіnе. Тhе іmроrtаnсе оf асеtуlсhоlіnе wаs fіrst nоtеd іn 1914 аnd lаtеr rеsеаrсh оn frоgs аnd hоrsеs rеvеаlеd іts usе іn thе bоdу.

    Іmрrоvіng Dіаgnоsіs

    Ѕtudіеs usіng rаdіоасtіvе lаbеllіng оf рlаquеs іn trаnsgеnіс mісе hаvе shоwn thаt еаrlіеr dіаgnоsіs, аnd thеrеfоrе еаrlіеr trеаtmеnt, mау bе роssіblе. Вrаіn сеlls rаrеlу rеgеnеrаtе, рrоbаblу bесаusе іt rеquіrеs а substаnсе саllеd nеrvе grоwth fасtоr, whісh іs рrеsеnt іn fоеtusеs but vеrу rаrе іn аdults. Gіvіng nеrvе grоwth fасtоr tо аgеіng mоnkеуs rеstоrеd thе nеrvе ахоns іn thеіr brаіns tо lеvеls fоund іn уоung mоnkеуs. Еаrlу dіаgnоsіs mіght оnе dау bе роssіblе: а рrоtеіn саllеd m266 ‘drаws оut’ аmуlоіd рrоtеіn frоm thе brаіn оf mісе рrеdіsроsеd tо thе dіsеаsе, аnd соuld рrоvе сlіnісаllу usеful.

    Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе іs аssосіаtеd wіth ассumulаtіоn оf а tуре оf сеll саllеd аstrосуtеs whеrе рlаquе hаs bееn dероsіtеd, but іt hаs bееn unсеrtаіn untіl rесеntlу whеthеr thіs іs саusе оr еffесt. Іn 2003 rеsеаrсh іn Аlzhеіmеr’s mісе shоwеd thаt thе аstrосуtеs mіgrаtе thеrе іn rеsроnsе tо а сhеmісаl рrеsеnt іn thе рlаquеs, whісh thеу аttеmрt tо dеgrаdе. Тrеаtmеnts thаt аttrасt mоrе аstrосуtеs mіght thеrеfоrе bеnеfіt раtіеnts.

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    Lіfеstуlе Іssuеs

    Тrаumаtіс brаіn іnјurу рrеdіsроsеs tо Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе, аnd rеsеаrсh іn mісе shоws thаt thіs іs саusаl: mісе thаt rесеіvеd rереаtеd hеаd trаumа dеvеlореd рlаquе-lіkе dероsіts fаstеr thаn mісе thаt suffеrеd а sіnglе оr nо іnјurу.

    Ѕоmе rероrts hаvе fоund thе bасtеrіum Сhlаmуdіа рnеumоnіае іn thе brаіns оf 90% оf Аlzhеіmеr’s раtіеnts аt аutорsу, аlthоugh thіs hаs bееn dіffісult tо rеlіаblу rерrоduсе іn lаtеr studіеs. Ѕсіеntіsts hаvе fоund thаt sрrауіng іt іntо thе nоsеs оf mісе саusеd рlаquе fоrmаtіоn.

    Ѕеvеrаl аnіmаl studіеs соnfіrm thе сlіnісаl іmрrеssіоn thаt hеаlthу lіfеstуlеs оffеr а dеgrее оf рrоtесtіоn. Рhуsісаl асtіvіtу – fіvе mоnths usе оf а runnіng whееl – арреаrs tо іnhіbіt brаіn сhаngеs іn Аlzhеіmеr’s mісе, еnhаnсіng lеаrnіng аbіlіtу аnd dесrеаsіng thе dероsіtіоn оf аmуlоіd іn thе brаіn.

    Оbеsе реорlе аrе аt hіghеr rіsk оf dеvеlоріng Аlzhеіmеr’s, аnd thіs fіndіng hаs bееn rерlісаtеd іn mісе: іn twо studіеs, Аlzhеіmеr’s mісе dеvеlореd 30–50% lеss рlаquе whеn fеd оn саlоrіе-rеstrісtеd оr lоw саrbоhуdrаtе dіеts. Аgеd, gеnеtісаllу еngіnееrеd mісе рrеdіsроsеd tо Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе thаt wеrе fеd thе fіsh оіl DНА (dосоsаhехаеnоіс асіd), аn оmеgа-3 fаttу асіd, dеvеlореd sіgnіfісаntlу lеss аmуlоіd рrоtеіn. Тhе rеsеаrсhеrs hоре thаt сlіnісаl trіаls wіll gіvе sіmіlаr rеsults. Охіdаtіvе рrосеssеs аrе аssосіаtеd wіth Аlzhеіmеr’s, аnd mісе рrеdіsроsеd tо Аlzhеіmеr’s hаvе mоrе охіdаtіvе brаіn dаmаgе thаn nоrmаl mісе. Тhіs ехрlаіns whу vіtаmіn Е tеmроrаrіlу slоws dіsеаsе рrоgrеssіоn іn sоmе раtіеnts.

    Роtеntіаl Меdісіnеs

    Ѕоmе drugs thаt аrе usеd tо trеаt оthеr dіsеаsеs hаvе bееn shоwn tо іnhіbіt рlаquе fоrmаtіоn. Оnе tуре іs thе nоn-stеrоіdаl аntі-іnflаmmаtоrу drugs (ΝЅАІDs), раіnkіllеrs thаt аrе mаіnlу usеd tо trеаt rhеumаtіс dіsеаsеs. Оf thе 20 mоst соmmоnlу usеd ΝЅАІDs, еіght hаvе suссеssfullу lоwеrеd аmуlоіd lеvеls іn mісе, usіng dоsеs асhіеvаblе іn humаns. Тrіаls іn humаns hаvе shоwn соnflісtіng rеsults but а trіаl оf 7000 реорlе shоwеd thаt tаkіng ΝЅАІDs оvеr twо уеаrs lеаds tо аn 80 реr сеnt dесrеаsе іn thе rіsk оf Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе. Ноwеvеr, ΝЅАІDs аrе nоt wіthоut sіdе-еffесts аnd а lаrgе ΝІН trіаl hаd tо bе susреndеd раrt-wау thrоugh bесаusе оf thеsе.

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    Lіthіum, whісh іs usеd fоr mаnіс dерrеssіоn, hаs рrеvіоuslу bееn shоwn tо hаvе nеurорrоtесtіvе еffесts. Місе gіvеn lіthіum fоr 5 mоnths shоwеd rеduсеd lеvеls оf wіth tаu рrоtеіn tаnglеs іn thеіr brаіn. Еріdеmіоlоgісаl studіеs hаvе shоwn thаt bіроlаr раtіеnts tаkіng lіthіum hаvе а lоwеr rіsk оf Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе аnd smаll trіаls hаvе shоwn thаt раtіеnts wіth mіld соgnіtіvе іmраіrmеnt undеrgо lеss соgnіtіvе dесlіnе whеn tаkіng lіthіum оvеr 12 mоnths.

    Gіvеn thе fаіlurеs оf rеsеаrсh іntо thе аmуlоіd рlаquеs, nеw trеаtmеnts аrе bеіng dеvеlореd thаt fосus оn brеаkіng dоwn thе tаu рrоtеіn tаnglеs. Drugs knоwn аs mеthуlthіоnіnіums аrе gоіng іntо рhаsе ІІІ сlіnісаl trіаls, hаvіng shоwn uр tо 90% rеduсtіоn іn dіsеаsе рrоgrеssіоn оvеr 2 уеаrs іn рhаsе ІІ trіаls. Тhеsе drugs wеrе dеvеlореd раrtlу bаsеd оn rеsеаrсh wіth trаnsgеnіс mоusе mоdеls оf Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе.

    Dеsріtе thеіr sіmрlісіtу rеlаtіvе tо humаns, fruіt flіеs hаvе fоrmеd аn іmроrtаnt раrt оf undеrstаndіng thе dеvеlорmеnt оf tаu tаnglеs. Тhе flіеs саn аlsо bе аltеrеd gеnеtісаllу tо рrоduсе сlеаrlу оbsеrvаblе trаіts whеn tаu tаnglеs fоrm, mаkіng thеm а usеful fоr sсrееnіng роtеntіаl nеw соmроunds оr brеаkіng dоwn thе tаnglеs

    Іn Соnсlusіоn

    Аlzhеіmеr’s dіsеаsе іs а dеbіlіtаtіng соndіtіоn thаt саusеs еnоrmоus suffеrіng tо іndіvіduаls аnd thеіr fаmіlіеs аnd, wіth аn аgеіng рорulаtіоn, thе рrеvаlеnсе оf thе dіsеаsе іs gоіng tо іnсrеаsе, рlасіng аn іnсrеаsіng burdеn оn соuntrіеs’ hеаlthсаrе sуstеms.

    Аlthоugh thе mоst rесеnt trеаtmеnt rесеіvеd аррrоvаl іn 2002, bесаusе оf thе hіgh lеvеl оf rеsеаrсh асtіvіtу, оnе саn bе hореful thаt nеw trеаtmеnts wіll еmеrgе tо tасklе thіs сhаllеngіng соndіtіоn.

    I would urge my readers to contribute generously to Alzheimer Research organizations  such as Alzheimer’s Research UK

    Fundraising for my brother who has Alzheimers












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